Los lugares comunes donde esto sucede incluyen la prensa, el aula, el ayuntamiento, las legislaturas y la mesa familiar.
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Por ejemplo, Martin Luther King Jr. Al final, nuestra conciencia es todo lo que tenemos. La capacidad de expresar esa conciencia es nuestra primogenitura como seres humanos. Sin ella, nuestras otras libertades tienen poco significado [vii].
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Los informes de la prensa sobre ese evento fueron esclarecedores. This guarantees them access to a particular statute. This access is denied to minority Religious Groups, which lack such notorious establishment.
These legal agreements, product of a conventional regulation, are configured in the privilege note. This situation is not far away from institutionalized religious discrimination. Therefore it would be more useful to opt for a model of common rights , that would be applicable to all Religious Groups.
Theoretically, the principle of non-discrimination for religious motivations is in effect in Spain. This is a consequence of the article 14 of the Spanish Constitution.
But in our legal classification, we can distinguish perfectly between those Religious Groups regulated by the common right of associations, and those who enjoy a special legislation, with a more favorable legal status. The educational system will perhaps be, one of the most important vehicles of social influence of the Catholic Church, the majority religious group in Spain.
The Catholic Church receives 1. And this happens in a country where the Church and the State are separate.
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We can say: separate but with economic support of the State, of course. There is a special direct economic cooperation between the State and the Catholic Church. The privilege conceded to the Catholic Church finds a very difficult justification from the constitutional perspective, because according to article This makes this privilege unacceptable.
The Religious Groups that signed the Agreements of [ 8 ] do not enjoy this privilege. There is also a strong indirect economic cooperation between the State and the Catholic Church.
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Here we again find a diversity of systems. This violates constitutional principles, and it only can be explained from the inertia of history. Nowadays, it is abolished the old privilege of article XX of the Concordat of This article established the fiscal immunity of the money that the State gave to the Catholic Church. Any another solution would be unconstitutional, because it would be against articles 14, 16 and 31 of the Spanish Constitution.
But there are nowadays many tax privileges, many of them impossible to justify under constitutional principles. On my personal opinion, this conflicts with the European Community regulation on fiscal harmonization on V. The Commission of the European Communities directed a letter of complaint to the Permanent Representation of Spain in the Community, in November 23, The Commission of the European Communities considered that the fiscal benefits of the Minister of the Treasury Order February 29, , and the Resolution of the Taxes General Director of March 14, , were not included in the VI Directive of the Council of the European Communities of May 17, , of harmonization of the legislation of the state members in matter of indirect taxes.
The response of the Spanish Government was that this tax privilege was a previous obligation of Spain in an International Agreement with the Vatican in This response compels us to question the appropriateness of these agreements , between the Church and the State. These sales were declared exempt by the Agreement with the Catholic Church. This is a privilege not enjoyed by public officials which plays an important role in the exercise of other fundamental rights, such as education or freedom of information.
The remaining of religious groups not covered by any agreements enjoy none of these privileges attributed to the Catholic Church, in a country that claims to be secular, neutral and separate from the Church, where all citizens are equal under Law. The problem would not be solved by granting this benefit to the minority groups since this would simply perpetuate the violation of the principle of non establishment. The problem only would be resolved by suppressing this privilege given to the Catholic Church. This is a privilege which even the vast majority of the public servants do not enjoy.
I can not find any justification. I can find only an explanation: the inertia of history has perpetuated a privilege dating from the National Budget Law of The Catholic Church wants to defend its power of control and social influence.
But the influence capacity of the Catholic Church on the Spanish society has experimented a setback. The first great crisis was the authorization of the divorce in The divorce caused a revolution in the Spanish society. Social theory and religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, The social reality of religion. Quito: Consejo Latinoamericano de Iglesias, El concepto de marco interpretativo en el estudio de movimientos religiosos. Public religions in the modern world.
Derecho Conciencia Religion Law by Miguel Angel
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Creyentes y creencias en Guadalajara. Creencias y religiones en el Gran Buenos Aires: el caso de Quilmes.
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Buenos Aires: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Libertad religiosa en Argentina. Outside the nation, outside the diaspora: accomodating race and religion in Argentina. Sociology of Religion , Galva, IL, 63 3 , p. Repensando el monopolio religioso del catolicismo en la Argentina.
Cult controversies and government control of new religious movements in Argentina.
Transfusiones y Testigos de Jehová. Derecho a la vida, a la libertad religiosa o de conciencia.
Regulating religion: case studies from around the globe. Las creencias en los barrios o un rastreo de las identidades religiosas en los sectores populares urbanos del Gran Buenos Aires. International Religion Indexes: government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion , 2, art.
Secularization and religious modernity in Western Europe.